Zh-hans:Key:building

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Public-images-osm logo.svg building
Emptyhouse.jpg
说明
Building标签用以标绘一个永久或半永久性质的建筑物或有屋顶的人造物的轮廓。 编辑此说明
OSM Carto中渲染
Area building=yes.png
组: 建筑物
用于这些元素
可用于节点不可用于路径可用于区域不可用于关系
已记载的值: 153
暗含
常用组合
状态:已批准Page for proposal

broom

Help (89606) - The Noun Project.svg

building标签用于将对象指定为建筑物。在OpenStreetMap中,建筑物通常是有屋顶的人造结构,或多或少地永久性地矗立在一个地方。

这个标签的最基本的用法是 building=yes, 但这个标签也有其他的值可以用来对建筑物的类型进行分类。

请注意,标签和值表达的建筑物类型,可能与个别建筑当前的实际用途不一样(可用 building:use=* 标记)。例如,一个被遗弃或被改造为市场的医院建筑仍然属于 building=hospital。 若想要标记正在运作中的医院建筑群,则应参见使用 amenity=hospital

标注方法

用一个节点标记位置;或使用多边形描绘出一个轮廓后。并给它加上标签 building=* 和适当的值。

用法

参见 Buildings

building键和值用于将多边形指定为建筑物。有关各种建筑物将会如何被标记和渲染,请详见:Buildings
请留意,以单个节点方式表达的建筑物:虽然建筑物最好是以其实际占地范围来绘制(多边形轮廓), 并且OSM也正在不断迭代,但世界上许多地区并没有较好的航空影像和数据集可以用来正确表达建筑物的轮廓。所以,在条件有限且没有更好的参考源的情况下,使用节点来表达建筑物位置是可以容许的。[1]

注释 图片

居住区/居民地

building apartments 公寓楼:用作分配住宅的建筑,通常有多个的楼层。也可能在首层有临街店铺。
Apartments6levels.png
building barracks 兵营:为安置军事人员或相关劳动者而建造的建筑物。
Barracks-sweden.jpg
building bungalow 平房:一个单层的独立小房子,在野外俗称乡间宅第。
Bungalow2.jpg
building cabin 小木屋:矮小、施工风格粗犷、有圆木外墙的小屋,通常在野外和林地常见。
Koch Cabin.JPG
building detached 分离式建筑:附属于附近一户独栋人家或主建筑的独立小屋,通常可用作车库、仓库、工坊等。
Residential House USA.JPG
building dormitory 宿舍:为各类院校的学生预备的居住建筑(注意,在英式英语中,这个词不是集体宿舍,可能是单间)。或者可以使用 building=residential 外加 residential=university 来表达这是给学生居住用的建筑。
Belgrade Dormitory.jpg
building farm 农宅:一种在农场之内、与农业风格相符的农家住宅。对于农场里的其他作用建筑,请参见下方的 building=farm_auxiliarybuilding=barn 等。如果你所在国家的农宅外形和普通房屋相似,那也可以直接使用 building=house 标签。另外可参考一下 landuse=farmyard 用以表示其周边的农庄地带。
Studna před č.1.,Holašovice.JPG
building ger 蒙古包(或类似的帐篷建筑):永久性或季节性的蒙古包等。
Gurvger.jpg
building hotel 酒店:设计有多个客房用以过夜留宿的建筑物。此标签使用时,通常与 tourism=hotel 标签配合,用以表达附属娱乐设施和停车设施。
Hcom 1097758 7 b.jpg
building house 房屋(不仅限于独栋房屋):大家都喜欢的独栋房子,或是联排房屋的其中一栋。每栋内部为一个家庭所居住(其内部也有可能是迷你民宿、迷你公寓,但至少有一个公共厨房等设施)。房屋可为多种类型:其有附属的分离式建筑(例如车库、仓库、工坊);若绘制的房屋是联排房屋中的其中一栋,那么其应至少存在两个与邻户共用的节点(公共点),并可以用这些点来定义两套产权界线上的公共墙
Emptyhouse.jpg
building houseboat 船屋:主要用作住宅的水上船只。
Houseboat- Dal Lake, srinagar Kashmir.JPG
building residential 居住区/居民地:用以表达居民地建筑物的通用标签,并且可以考虑使用更详细标记,例如“公寓”、“联排房屋”、“房屋”、“半分离房屋”等。
Timarpur Residential Complex.jpg
building semidetached_house 半独立式房屋:两者之间有一堵公共墙的两户对称(或近乎对称)的房屋。在美式英语中,通常称为"duplex"。
Semi-detached houses in West Street - geograph.org.uk - 788755.jpg
building static_caravan 拖车房屋:一座可移动房屋,以永久或半永久性质放置在该地。
67elcona.JPG
building terrace 联排房屋:此标签用于直接表达一整串紧密相邻的民宅的外轮廓。这些房屋的每个组成户都有其独立的出入口,它们串联在一起,组成的即是联排房屋 (在北美英语中,联排房屋称为"row-house"或"townhouse")。条件允许的话,也请考虑使用前文介绍的"house"值去定义其中每一户民宅的具体区域。
Street of terraced housing.jpg

商业

building commercial 商业:用以表达未指定主要业务、或多元化业务的商业建筑物,不一定就要是办公楼。另外,如果符合实际情况,请考虑对周边的区域使用 landuse=commercial 标签,若这些建筑群内主要是商店,则应考虑使用'retail'(零售)作为值。
Sheraton Grande Tokyo Bay Hotel.jpg
building industrial 工业:用于工业用途的建筑物。如果该建筑物主要是用于仓储/物流,则应使用'warehouse'(仓库)值。也请考虑对周边的区域使用 landuse=industrial ,且应用 man_made=works 此类或相关的标签来描述其具体的工业活动类型。
Eley Industrial Estate1.JPG
building kiosk 售货亭/小卖部:一个小型单间零售建筑。
Kiosk germany.jpg
building office 办公楼/办公室:办公建筑。可使用 office=* 字段以注明其具体业务类型。请考虑对其周边的区域使用 landuse=commercial 标签,若此建筑内主要是商店,则还是应考虑使用'retail'(零售)作为值。
TLV Train Tower 1.jpg
building retail 零售:主要用于向公共社会销售商品的建筑。使用 shop=* 标签以注明其销售的商品类型,或应用 amenity=* pub, cafe, restaurant等字段,以注明酒吧、咖啡厅、餐厅等服务场所。也请考虑对其周边区域使用 landuse=retail 作为标签.
Macys dep store.JPG
building supermarket 超市/超级市场:用于自选购物的大型市场、商店建筑。
Comet - geograph.org.uk - 304074.jpg
building warehouse 仓库:主要用于存储货物、商品,或用来作为物流系统的建筑。
Copenhagen warehouse.jpg

宗教

building cathedral 大教堂:一座大教堂。可对其和周边附属地带关联使用 amenity=place_of_worshipreligion=*denomination=*landuse=religious
Saint Vitus Cathedral in Prague, Czech Republic.jpg
building chapel 小教堂:一座小教堂。可对其和周边附属地带关联使用 amenity=place_of_worshipreligion=*denomination=*landuse=religious
Andachtskapelle des Moorbad Gmös.jpg
building church 教堂/礼拜堂:一座常见的普通教堂。可对其和周边附属地带关联使用 amenity=place_of_worshipreligion=*denomination=*landuse=religious
Churchstcl.jpg
building kingdom_hall 王国堂。一座 王国堂。其与附属周边地带常关联使用 amenity=place_of_worshipreligion=christiandenomination=jehovahs_witnesslanduse=religious
Kingdom Hall of Joehovah's Witnesses, 11 Monmouth Road, London.jpg
building monastery 修道院:一座[W] 修道院。通常,修道院还会关联好几座不同功能的建筑物。对于真正运作中的修道院(或其社区范围),请用 amenity=monastery 进行注明。 对于以前的修道院历史古迹,请参考使用 historic=monastery
Klasztor2.jpg
building mosque 清真寺:一座清真寺。可对其和周边附属地带关联使用 amenity=place_of_worshipreligion=*denomination=*landuse=religious
Khadija-Moschee (Berlin).jpg
building presbytery 长老会:用于牧者、神父等宗教团体的首领生活和居住的建筑物。
building religious 宗教:对于宗教相关建筑的通用标签。在条件允许的情况下,还是请考虑使用前文内容对宗教建筑做详细的注明。
Religious syms.svg
building shrine 神社:一座神社。可对其和周边附属地带关联使用 amenity=place_of_worshipreligion=*denomination=*landuse=religious。对于常见的小型的神社,应考虑使用 historic=wayside_shrine(路边神龛)标签。
Heiligenhäuschen.JPG
building synagogue 犹太教堂:一座犹太教堂。可对其和周边附属地带关联使用 amenity=place_of_worshipreligion=*denomination=*landuse=religious
Synagogue Florence Italy.JPG
building temple 寺庙:一座寺庙。可对其和周边附属地带关联使用 amenity=place_of_worshipreligion=*denomination=*landuse=religious
Hephaistos.temple.AC.02.jpg

公共

building bakehouse A building that was built as a bakehouse (i.e. for baking bread). Often used in conjunction with another node amenity=baking_oven and oven=wood_fired.
Backhaus-amstetten-dorf.jpg
building civic A generic tag for a building created to house some civic amenity, for example amenity=community_centre, amenity=library, amenity=toilets, leisure=sports_centre, leisure=swimming_pool, amenity=townhall etc. Use amenity=* or leisure=* etc. to provide further details. See building=public and more specific tags like building=library as well.
Scarborough Civic Centre.jpg
building college A college building. Use amenity=college on the whole college area to represent the college as an institution.
(1)Hornsby TAFE.jpg
building fire_station A building constructed as fire station, i.e. to house fire fighting equipment and officers, regardless of current use. Add amenity=fire_station on the grounds for an active fire station.
Blacktown Fire Station - Flickr - Highway Patrol Images.jpg
building government For government buildings in general, including municipal, provincial and divisional secretaries, government agencies and departments, town halls, (regional) parliaments and court houses.
Ministerio de Defensa Argentina Edificio Libertador.jpg
building hospital A building errected for a hospital. Use amenity=hospital for the hospital grounds.
Hospital.png
building kindergarten For any generic kindergarten buildings. Buildings for specific uses (sports halls etc.) should be tagged for their purpose. If there is currently a kindergarten in the building, use amenity=kindergarten on the perimeter of the kindergarten grounds.
Unterhaus keilhau.jpg
building public A building constructed as accessible to the general public (a town hall, police station, court house, etc.).
Dominion Public Building.JPG
building school A building errected as school. Buildings for specific uses (sports halls etc.) should be tagged for their purpose. If there is currently a school, use amenity=school on the perimeter of the school grounds.
Convent School's Pippal.JPG
building toilets A toilet block.
Shui Tau Tsuen Public Toilet (YL-175) 2014.JPG
building train_station A building constructed to be a train station building, including buildings that are abandoned and used nowadays for a different purpose.
Dobrepolje train station.jpg
building transportation A building related to public transport. You will probably want to tag it with proper transport related tag as well, such as public_transport=station. Note that there is a special tag for train station buildings - building=train_station.
Kusatsu-Onsen Bus Station.jpg
building university A university building. Use amenity=university for the university as an institution.
University College Oxford.jpg

农业

building barn An agricultural building used for storage and as a covered workplace.
EJFrykBarn.jpg
building conservatory A building or room having glass or tarpaulin roofing and walls used as an indoor garden or a sunroom (winter garden).
Phipps Conservatory winter 2015 welcome center.jpg
building cowshed A cowshed (cow barn, cow house) is a building for housing cows, usually found on farms.
Cowhouse Hrazany2.jpg
building farm_auxiliary A building on a farm that is not a dwelling (use 'farm' or 'house' for the farm house).
Horseshoe Barn.jpg
building greenhouse A greenhouse is a glass or plastic covered building used to grow plants. Use landuse=greenhouse_horticulture for an area containing multiple greenhouses
Greenhouse 1.JPG
building slurry_tank A circular building built to hold a liquid mix of primarily animal excreta (also known as slurry).
Gylletank30m.jpg
building stable A stable is a building where horses are kept.
Häststall Elfviks gård dec 2008.jpg
building sty A sty (pigsty, pig ark, pig-shed) is a building for raising domestic pigs, usually found on farms.
Schweinehütten.jpg

体育

building grandstand The main stand, usually roofed, commanding the best view for spectators at racecourses or sports grounds.
Grandstand, Cluden Racecourse, 2000.jpg
building pavilion A sports pavilion usually with changing rooms, storage areas and possibly an space for functions & events. Avoid using this term for other structures called pavilions by architects (see [W] Pavilion)
LeytonCricketGround.JPG
building riding_hall A building that was built as a riding hall.
Ehem. Landgestüt Landshut Reithalle.JPG
building sports_hall A building that was built as a sports hall.
Kruunupyy sports hall 2017.jpg
building stadium A building constructed to be a stadium building, including buildings that are abandoned and used nowadays for a different purpose.
Nepstadion1.jpg

仓储

building hangar 机库是用于存放飞机、直升机或航天器的建筑物。另请在适当情况下添加 aeroway=hangar 标签。
IMPA hangar.jpg
building hut 木屋是矮小又简易的庇护所。请留意 hut 这个单词,在英语中是 building=shed同义词,用以形容一些低质量的居民建筑。
Kennedy's hut edit.jpg
building shed 棚舍是在庭院内或农地附近的简易单层建筑,用作仓储、兴趣工坊或工作室等。
Schuppen 7235.jpg

汽车

building carport A carport is a covered structure used to offer limited protection to vehicles, primarily cars, from the elements. Unlike most structures a carport does not have four walls, and usually has one or two.
Carport-gewölbt.jpg
building garage A garage is a building suitable for the storage of one or possibly more motor vehicle or similar. See building=garages for larger shared buildings. For an aircraft garage, see building=hangar.
Two-Car Garage.jpg
building garages A building that consists of a number of discrete storage spaces for different owners/tenants. See also building=garage.
Landbouwstraat garages.jpg
building parking Structure purpose-built for parking cars.
Gießen-Uniklinik-Parkhaus.jpg

电力

building digester A digester is a bioreactor for the production of inflatable biogas from biomass.
2012-05-13 Nordsee-Luftbilder DSCF8567.jpg
building service Service building usually is a small unmanned building with certain machinery (like pumps or transformers).
Service building.png
building transformer_tower A transformer tower is a characteristic tall building comprising a distribution transformer and constructed to connect directly to a medium voltage overhead power line. Quite often the power line has since been undergrounded but the building may still serve as a substation. If the building is still in use as a substation it should additionally be tagged as power=substation + substation=minor_distribution.
OesterSkovVejHad.jpg
building water_tower A water tower
Bad Schwartau - Wasserturm.JPG

其他建筑

building beach_hut A small, usually wooden, and often brightly coloured cabin or shelter above the high tide mark on popular bathing beaches.
Cabines de bain Berck.jpg
building bunker A hardened military building. Also use military=bunker.
Slavonický les, bunkr 01.jpg
building bridge A building used as a bridge (skyway). To map a gatehouse use building=gatehouse. See also bridge=yes for highway=*. Don't use this tag just for marking bridges (their outlines). For such purposes use man_made=bridge.
Münster, LVM -- 2017 -- 6368.jpg
building castle A building constructed as a castle. Can be further specified with historic=castle + castle_type=*.
Będzin. Zamek3.JPG
building construction Used for buildings under construction. Use construction=* to hold the value for the completed building.
Riga, stavba.jpg
building container For a container used as a permanent building. Do not map containers placed temporarily, for example used in shipping or construction.
Sparkasse Jena SB-Container.jpg
building gatehouse An entry control point building, spanning over a highway that enters a city or compound.
Gatehouse-abdij van park-inside.jpg
building military A military building. Also use military=*.
building roof A structure that consists of a roof with open sides, such as a rain shelter, and also gas stations
Preem Karlskrona.jpg
building ruins Frequently used for a house or other building that is abandoned and in poor repair. However, some believe this usage is incorrect, and the tag should only be used for buildings constructed as fake ruins (for example sham ruins in an English landscape garden). See also lifecycle tagging.
ARZAKAN Ghuki Monastery Եկեղեցական համալիր «Գհուկի վանք» (Բոլորահար) 12.JPG
building tent For a permanently placed tent. Do not map tents placed temporarily.
Krytá jízdárna Hipoterapie - Pirueta 09.jpg
building tree_house An accommodation, often designed as a small hut, sometimes also as a room or small apartment. Built on tree posts or on a natural tree. A tree house has no contact with the ground. Access via ladders, stairs or bridgeways.
Proper tree house.jpg
building yes Use this value where it is not possible to determine a more specific value.
building user defined All commonly used values according to Taginfo, generally building types

Additional attributes

Key Value Element Comment Photo
building:colour <RGB hex triplet> | <W3C colour name> area Indicates colour of the building
Jar burano 4 houses.jpg
building:fireproof yes | no node area Fire-resistance information.
building:flats <number> node area The number of residential units (flats, apartments) in an apartment building (building=apartments), residential building (building=residential), house (building=house), detached house (building=detached) or similar building.
building:levels <number> node area The number of visible levels (floors) in the building as used in the Simple 3D buildings scheme
Building-levels.png
building:material <material type> area Outer material for the building façade
Münster, LVM -- 2017 -- 6351-7.jpg
building:max_level <number> area maximum indoor level (floors) in the building as used in the Simple Indoor Tagging scheme
building:min_level <number> area minimum indoor level (floors) in the building as used in the Simple Indoor Tagging scheme
building:part As building area To mark a part of a building, which has attributes, different from such ones at other parts
Marek S3DB sumOfMoreElements.jpg
building:soft_storey yes | no | reinforced node area A building where any one level is significantly more flexible (less stiff) than those above and below it
entrance yes | main | exit | service | emergency node An entrance in a building. Replaces the deprecated tag building=entrance.
SF City Hall door.JPG
height <number> node area The height of the building in meters.
Height demonstration diagram.png
non_existent_levels <number> area list of indoor levels (floors) that do not exists in the building as used in the Simple Indoor Tagging scheme
start_date <date> node area The (approximated) date when the building was finished.
Connel bridge plate.jpg

This table is a wiki template with a default description in English. Editable here.

Possible Tagging Mistakes

如果你知道 有使用这个标签的地方的话,请确认能否使用其他标签代替。
我们非常不鼓励你使用自动化编辑,除非你知道自己在做什么

Notes

  1. Note that buildings as nodes are not rendered in the standard OSM cartography. https://github.com/gravitystorm/openstreetmap-carto/issues/806

See also