ES:Relation:route

From OpenStreetMap Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
Idiomas disponibles
Deutsch English español français italiano 日本語 polski русский
logo route
One example for route
Description
Tipo de relación que se usa para describir rutas de varias clases, mediante un conjunto de miembros y de etiquetas.
Group
Route
Members help
  • Vía - (blank)
  • Vía - forward
  • Vía - backward
  • Nodo - stop_<number>
  • Nodo - forward_stop_<number>
  • Nodo - backward_stop_<number>
  • Nodo - stop
  • Nodo - forward_stop
  • Nodo - backward_stop
Status
Undefined Status: Undefined
Statistics

Overpass turbo
Overpass turbo (via overpass turbo - help)

Una ruta es un recorrido consistente en un conjunto de vías, generalmente predeterminado y de público conocimiento, usado regularmente para el transporte o desplazamiento de personas o mercancías; puede consistir, por ejemplo, en el trayecto de un barco (el ferry Gijón - Nantes), la linea que sigue un autobús urbano, una ruta ciclable o senderista, etc.

Una vía (way) puede estar asignada a varias relaciones route, lo implica que uno, o más, itinerarios diferentes pueden superponerse en algunos tramos.

Por otra parte, hay que tener en cuenta que una vía, a veces, tiene más de una referencia (el número que las nombra); muchas grandes rutas europeas, cuyo nombre comienza por "E", comparten vías con rutas numeradas con referencias nacionales (Por ejemplo, la E-70 comprende la N134 en Francia y la N-330 y la A-23 en España)




Representación de Rutas ciclistas
Representación de Lineas de autobus
Representación de rutas pedestres

Etiquetas

Clave Valor Explicación
type route indica que esta relación representa una ruta
route road / bicycle / foot / hiking / bus / ferry / detour / train / tram / mtb (mountainbike) / horse / ski una carretera (por ejemplo, las vías que componen la E-5), rutas para bici, rutas de senderismo o cualquier otra (véase también Lista de rutas en uso)
name un nombre La ruta se conoce por este nombre, por ejemplo, "Camino de Santiago".
ref una referencia La ruta se conoce por esta referencia, por ejemplo, "E-70", "L 4" (línea de bus).
network ncn / rcn / lcn / nwn / rwn / ... Una red de rutas más extensa de la que ésta forma parte. Por ejemplo, la red nacional de vías ciclistas del Reino Unido, o la red de rutas senderistas del Parque Nacional de los Picos de Europa (PNPE).
operator nombre del operador La autoridad o empresa que gestiona la ruta en cuestión. Ejemplos: "ALSA", "Eurostar".
state proposed / alternate / temporary / connection A veces, las rutas no son permanentes (temporary): por ejemplo, los desvíos provisionale;, o sólo están propuestas (proposed), quizá por no ser oficiales a causa de algún trámite. Connection se usa para aquellas rutas que sirven de unión entre otras dos, o entre una ruta y, por ejemplo, el centro de una ciudad.Alternate, si una ruta es alternativa a otra.
symbol descripción del símbolo Describe el símbolo que se usa para señalizar el recorrido de la ruta; por ejemplo, las grandes rutas senderistas (GR) están señalizadas con dos rayas cortas paralelas y dispuestas enn horizontal, blanca la de arriba y roja la de abajo.
colour La designación RGB del color" (Opcional) Código de color RGB en format hexadecimal, de uso común en internet. Especialmente útil para las rutas de transporte público. Ejemplo: "#808080" para el gris neutro.
description una pequeña descripción Algo que defina, o diferencie la ruta.
distance distancia (Opcional) La distancia que cubre, si se conoce. Es de utilidad para los usuarios y para ayudar a seber si está completa. Debe incluir la unidad de medida usada y los decimales deben ir separados por un punto (e.g. "12.5km")
ascent ascenso (Opcional) El ascenso, expresado en metros (si se usa otra unidad, hay que especificarla: 600feet).
descent descent (Opcional) El descenso, expresado en metros (si se usa otra unidad, hay que especificarla: 600feet).
roundtrip yes/no (Opcional) Indica si la ruta es circular.

Miembros

Vía o nodo Función Veces que puede aparecer Explicación
Vía (vacío)/route cero o más Las vías que constituyen la ruta.
Vía forward/backward cero o más Indica que una ruta, o parte de ella, sólo puede seguirse en un sentido. "Forward" significa que la ruta se sigue en el mismo sentido que tiene la vía (las flechas que aparecen en ella cuando se edita) y "backward", que va únicamente en sentido contrario. Ejemplo tomado de un (mapa cilista).
Vía north/south/east/west cero o más En EEUU, en las carreteras se señaliza su orientación.
Vía link cero o más Enlaces (highway=*_link) a y desde la ruta (véase highway=motorway_link)
Nodo stop:<número> cero o más Una parada de autobus, o apeadero de tren que formen parte de la ruta. La numeración debe empezar en cero; esto no influye en el orden de las paradas en la API v0.6 (sólo hay que usar role=stop y ordenar las paradas en la relación.
Nodo forward/backward:stop:<número> cero o más Una parada de autobus, o apeadero de tren que formen parte de la ruta y que sólo sea usada en un dirección. "Forward" significa que la ruta se sigue en el mismo sentido que tiene la vía (las flechas que aparecen en ella cuando se edita) y "backward", en sentido contrario. esto no influye en el orden de las paradas en la API v0.6 (sólo hay que usar role=forward/backward_stop y ordenar las paradas en la relación.
Nodo stop cero o más Una parada de autobus, o apeadero de tren que formen parte de la ruta.
Nodo forward/backward:stop cero o más Una parada de autobus, o apeadero de tren que formen parte de la ruta y que sólo sea usada en un dirección. "Forward" significa que la ruta se sigue en el mismo sentido que tiene la vía (las flechas que aparecen en ella cuando se edita) y "backward", en sentido contrario.

Relaciones de rutas en uso

Rutas de transporte público

Rutas de autobuses

Ver también: Buses

Clave Valor Observaciones
type route (obligatorio)
route bus
trolleybus
share_taxi
(obligatorio)
ref Referencia Número oficial de la ruta: 4, 4A, X13, IR 3114 etc (recomendado)
operator Operador Nombre de la empresa que maneja la ruta p.ej. Deutsche Bahn AG, Connex, Interconnex usw.
name Nombre individual Nombre de la ruta o línea p.ej. "Orient Express" "Thalys" (opcional)
network Red local o regional Nombre (abr.) de la red p.ej. BVG, RMV (opcional)
wheelchair yes / no / limited Indica si los buses de la ruta están equipados con rampas o elevadores para sillas de ruedas. (opcional)
colour ex: red / #FFEEDD Color oficial de la ruta. (opcional)


öpnvkarte y openstreetbrowser.org facilitan rutas de transporte público.

Ejemplos:

Rutas de ferrocarriles (metropolitano, subterráneo, monocarril, etc.)

Ver también: Railway

Rutas de ferrocarriles se usan tanto para partes de la infraestructura que tienen nombres (p.ej. East Coast Main Line) como para servicios de ferrocarriles que tienen nombres o números conocidos al público (p.ej. Orient Express).

Clave Valor Observaciones
type route
route tren
metropolitano/subterráneo
ref Referencia Número de la línea p.ej. IR 3114
operator Operador Número de la empresa que maneja la ruta p.ej. Deutsche Bahn AG, Connex, Interconnex usw.
name Nombre individual Sólo si hay un nombre especial de la ruta o línea p.ej. "Orient Express" "Hammersmith and City" (opcional)
network Red local o regional Nombre (abr.) de la red p.ej. BVG, RMV (opcional)
wheelchair yes / no / limited If the trains on the route are equipped with ramps or elevators for wheelchairs. Note that even if the trains are that the not all stations on the route may be suitable, or not all platforms may be accessible (optional)
colour ex: red / #FFEEDD If the railway route has an "official" colour, for example metro lines in some cities. (optional)

Route relations could also be used to designate railway lines that are operated by one (perhaps more) train operators. Some examples can be found at Open Rail Map/NL.

öpnvkarte and openstreetbrowser.org render public transportation routes.

Some examples in use:

Tram routes

Main article: Trams

Key Value Comment
type route
route tram
ref Reference The number of the line e.g. IR 3114
operator operator Name of the company that operates the route e.g. Deutsche Bahn AG, Connex, Interconnex usw.
name Individual Name Common name "Orient Express" "Thalys" (optional); "Line 4" is not a name but a ref, so ref=4 should be used
network local/ regional network Name (Abbr.) of the network e.g. BVG, RMV (optional)
wheelchair yes / no / limited If the trams on the route are equipped with ramps or elevators for wheelchairs.
colour ex: red / #FFEEDD The tram, subways and buses might have "official" colour identifiers in some cities.

öpnvkarte and openstreetbrowser.org render public transportation routes.

Some examples:

  • Please add here...


Other Routes

Road Routes

route network Description
road e-road European E-road network
road US:I Interstate Highways Relations, USA
road US:US United States Numbered Highway Relations, USA
road US:xx State highways in the United States, where xx is the state's postal abbreviation. Many states also have county route networks, and some have several tiers of state-owned roads.
road BAB German Autobahn
road ca_transcanada Canadian Trans-Canada highways
road ca_on_primary Ontario primary highways
road pl:national Polish Road Network - national roads
road by:national [1] Belarusian Road Network - national roads
road BR Brazilian Federail Highways
road BR:xx Brazilian state highways, where xx is replaced by state code (RJ = Rio de Janeiro, MG = Minas Gerais, etc.)
road bg:national Bulgarian Road Network - national roads
road ja:national Japanese national roads
road ja:prefectural Japanese prefectural roads
road za:national South African national roads
road za:regional South African regional roads
road na:national Namibian national roads


Some examples in use:

  • Please add here...

Cycle routes (also mountain bike)

Main article: Cycle routes Cycle routes are extensively mapped with route relations, and the OSM cycle map will render route relations following this proposal.

In general it is probably a good idea to add the tags: "type => route" and "route => bicycle" (or "route => mtb"). However, the cycle map will still render a route if they are not present.

The following tags are used in rendering:

Key Value Comment
ref a reference (optional) NCN, RCN, and LCN references work best on the map if just the number is used, so for NCN 4: "4". The network tag correctly distinguishes the type, so just use "ref" and not "ncn_ref" or similar.
network ncn / rcn / lcn Specify the network as a national route, a regional route, or a local route, as per the normal tagging of cycle routes
state proposed (optional) Routes are sometimes not official routes pending some negotiation or development -- the map renders these routes dotted.


route network Description
bicycle ncn National cycling network: long distance routes used for cycling routes that cross countries
bicycle rcn Regional cycling network: used for cycling routes that cross regions

In Belgium and the Netherlands this is used for the cycle node networks

bicycle lcn Local cycling network: used for small local cycling routes. Could be touristic loops or routes crossing a city


Some examples in use:


CycleLayer2.png
An international cycling map created from OSM data is available, provided by Andy Allan. The map rendering is still being improved, the data are updated every few days. It shows National Cycle Network cycle routes, other regional and local routes, and other cycling-specific features, such as:
  • dedicated cycle tracks and lanes
  • bicycle parking
  • contours and hill colouring
  • bike shops
  • proposed bike routes (or numbering protocols), contrasted with the Lonvia map, below, which does not show proposed routes, but actual routes only

http://www.opencyclemap.org/

Lonvia's Cycling Map by Sarah Hoffman is an overlay which shows marked cycle routes around the world. Updated daily, it renders actual routes without the state=proposed tag. Therefore no proposed routes (or numbering protocols) are displayed.

Walking routes (also hiking and pilgrimage)

Main article: Walking Routes

Hiking routes are extensively mapped with route relations, and the Lonvia map will render route relations following this proposal and the osmc:symbol=*

The tag route=hiking is frequently used synonymously with route=foot.

Hiking routes are rendered for selected areas in Germany in a Hiking and Trail riding map (german). The tags required for rendering are:

Tag Description

type=route

route=foot or
route=hiking or

name=*

Meaningful route name suitable for identifying this route.

symbol=* Verbal description of the route marker symbols.
osmc:symbol=* Coded description of the route marker symbols.


route network Description
foot iwn International walking network: long distance paths used for walking routes that cross several countries, for example the Camino de Santiago
foot nwn National walking network: long distance paths used for walking routes that cross countries
foot rwn Regional walking network: used for walking routes that cross regions

In Belgium and the Netherlands this is used for the walking node networks

foot lwn Local walking network: used for small local walking routes. Could be touristic loops or routes crossing a city

Some examples:

  • Please add here...

Detours

route network Description
detour Local detours (used in the Netherlands and Germany). Detours are routes that avoid traffic jams on motorways, usually leading from one exit to the next.

List of route types in use

This is a table with possible route tags being used right now: (see also OSMDOC)

route Description
bicycle
bus bus routes over ways
detour a named, permanent detour
ferry ferry routes over water
fitness_trail for fitness trail with extra exercise stations
foot
hiking
horse
mtb (mountainbike)
pilgrimage The pilgrimage routes are tagged as hiking or bicycle route, with pilgrimage=yes and religion=*.
See for example Camino de Santiago and EV3. See also Category:Pilgrimage.
piste Proposed for the routes of pistes (e.g. snowshoe or XC-Ski trails) in winter sport areas.
power where power lines use the same towers (the same way)
railway
road long roads with a common name or ref. e.g. a european motorway made up of many segments of national motorways
roller_skate
running
ski For ski tracks (e.g XC-Ski Trails User:Langläufer/Loipemap)
taxi See also: route=share_taxi
tram A tram service. See trams.
trolleybus See bus
cycling Used for cycling events (like stages of the Tour de France). For (recreational) cyclenetwork use bicycle
please add here

Step by step guide

How to create a new route (it is slightly different if you want to add ways to an existing route).

Potlatch

  1. Ensure all ways which the route runs along exist and are appropriately tagged (e.g., highway=footway)
  2. Select the first way and click on the second symbol on the right side, which looks like two chain segments.
  3. Select a relation from the drop-down, if there's an appropriate existing one in this area. If the existing relation to choose is far away, use the search function. Otherwise, select Create a new relation and click Add.
    1. Add a type tag with the value route.
    2. Add additional tags as needed. (Use the + button)
    3. Click OK.
  4. The relation is added to the way. The grey box to the right of the relation details and to the left of the X is the input field for the way's role within the relation, see the Members section above for details of roles within the route relation type.
  5. Repeat steps 2-4, selecting the appropriate relation (the one just created) in step 3.

JOSM

  1. Ensure all ways which the route runs along exist and are appropriately tagged (e.g., highway=footway)
  2. Make sure the relation pane (Alt+R) is open
  3. Select New in the relation pane to create a new relation
  4. Fill in the appropriate tags in the dialog that pops up, at least type=route and preferrably name as well with a name for the route
  5. Click OK
  6. Now select some or all of the ways you'd like to add to the relation using the normal select (S) tool, then click Edit in the relation pane with your relation highlighted. The relation editing dialog will pop up
  7. Click Add selection in the relation dialog to add the selected ways to the relation.

Mapping practice

Multiple routes share the same path

Especially with bicycle routes it can happen very often that multiple routes run along the same ways for a far distance. There exist so many different bicycle route networks that are operated by different institutes that it is not unusual that some of these networks overlap. The EuroVelo routes for example use the already-existing infrastructure in many countries. There are two practices at the moment how to process if segments of multiple routes share the same way.

  • Add the ways to all relations of the routes that they belong to.
  • Split the routes into part relations and make super-relations (relations that don’t contain ways but instead other relations). Then add the segment that is shared by the routes to all of them.

Both practices each have different advantages and disadvantages.

Adding the ways to multiple relations

  • When many routes share one path, it can be a lot of work to map a new part of the route, as you have to add the ways to all relations.
  • People might not see that the path is also used by other routes and might forget to apply their changes to all relations. Thus the data may get inconsistent.
  • This is probably the easier way, as it is somewhat hard for beginners to split relations into parts and to find out which part they have to edit.
  • Relations might become very big, which makes it hard to work with them (analyzers need more time to process them, drawing them into the map will take a lot of JavaScript CPU time).
  • If you don’t use super-relations at all, you also have to add alternative routes and excursions to your relation. This makes it hard for analyzers and tools to understand the route. role=excursion and role=alternative have been suggested, but they still don’t say which way belongs to which excursion (if there are multiple ones).
  • It is the purpose of relations to group objects. When two primary roads share the same street at some part, we don’t create two ways for them that share the same nodes. So we shouldn’t create two relations that share the same ways.

Creating super-relations

  • Current renderers (like the CycleMap) don’t support super-relations, so they don’t show the ref and the network tag of a super-relation. Currently, all these tags have to be added to all part relations, which is a lot of work (especially as the parts need to have the different refs of all the routes they belong to).
  • It is said to be good mapping practice to keep relations one way, so alternative routes and excursions need to be put into a different relation anyway. So you often need a super-relation even without splitting the route into parts.
  • Tools and analyzers (like the OSM Relation Analyzer, especially the GPX export function) don’t support super-relations yet. This makes it hard to analyze a route as a whole (which is important for example to calculate how much of a route has already been mapped). (Note: OSM Route Manager supports sub-relations)
  • There is no documented convention on how to handle super-relations. On first glance it appears simple, just take over all tags to all members, but it is not. There are tags where this just makes no sense or which change the context and meaning when handed over to a member relation; e.g., distance or note.
  • Super-relations can become very confusing when a relation belongs to multiple super-relations or a way belongs to multiple relations. In that case it is no longer deterministic from which relation a certain relation or way will receive its tags.
  • When someone maps a new route, they might have to split other routes that share ways with it. People editing these other routes might get confused when the number of sub-relations keeps changing the whole time.
  • Current editors miss advanced relation editing features, such as “Split relation” (and also super-relation rendering). Things can get very confusing when one route consists of hundreds of small part relations.
  • One motto of OSM is "Don't map for the renderers". If is considered the more natural way of mapping to create super-relations, then the missing support in the renderers and tools should not stop us from doing so.
  • Consider that super-relations are not necessarily included when requesting a set of data from the server. So depending on whether or not super-relations were included, the data is interpreted differently. As you cannot tell from a way or relation whether it is member of another relation, you're never quite sure whether you see all relevant data.
  • It is common sense to create super-relations if one complete route is part of another route (like the German D6 is with EuroVelo EV6). If EV6 now shares only a part of another way in another country, we will have to create segments anyway (else we end up with a relation that contains both sub-relations and ways). We should either use the one method or the other.
  • People only need to know the route that they are mapping. When someone maps the German D6 route, he doesn’t even need to know the EuroVelo network (as EV signs might not exist in his area), as with a super-relation his part of the route gets automatically added to all parent relations. This fits the OSM concept better: When everyone maps the places and things he knows, a complete map of the world evolves.

At the moment it seems to be practice to create part-relations if the shared segment is relatively big compared to the total length of a route. For a national bicycle route, 20 km might be a good limit. For shorter parts the single ways might be added to all relations they belong to. (Of course this is only a rule of thumb, nothing of this is the official way of mapping.) It might also be important of how many different way objects a segment consists in OSM, it might be not very useful to create segments if the route consists of motorways (as they only contain of a few, long ways), while bicycle routes often go through cities and residential areas where many ways would have to be added if there were multiple relations.

Another point to decide which tagging method to use is to find out if the routes only use the same ways by coincidence. Thus, if in the case that one route is changed, the other route will likely still be using the old way, using part-relations would not be appropriate.

Notes

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_3166-2:BY

Helping Tools